Exploring Rumeli: The European Side Of Turkey

Have you ever wondered about the hidden gems of Turkey beyond the popular tourist destinations? Look no further than Rumeli, the captivating European side of this vibrant country. With its rich history, breathtaking landscapes, and diverse culture, Rumeli offers a unique experience that will leave you in awe. From the bustling streets of Istanbul to the tranquil shores of the Black Sea, this article takes you on a journey through the lesser-known wonders of Rumeli, uncovering its hidden treasures and inviting you to explore a side of Turkey that is often overlooked. So, pack your bags and get ready to embark on a memorable adventure in Rumeli.

History of Rumeli

Rumeli, the European side of Turkey, has a rich and diverse history that spans across centuries. From the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Empire, the echoes of these great civilizations can still be seen in the region today.

The Byzantine Period

In the Byzantine period, Rumeli was an important part of the empire. The city of Constantinople, now known as Istanbul, was the capital of the Byzantine Empire and a center of trade and culture. The iconic Hagia Sophia, which was initially built as a Christian basilica and later converted into a mosque, stands as a testament to the Byzantine architectural brilliance. Other notable landmarks from this era include the impressive walls that surround Istanbul, protecting the city from invaders.

The Ottoman Empire

With the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Rumeli became an integral part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans left a lasting imprint on the region, with magnificent palaces, such as the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, serving as a reminder of their grandeur and power. The Ottoman Empire was also known for its architectural masterpieces, like the Blue Mosque and the Süleymaniye Mosque, which are famous for their stunning domes and intricate tilework.

Greek and Bulgarian Influence

Rumeli was also influenced by its neighboring countries, Greece and Bulgaria. The rich cultural exchange between these nations resulted in a vibrant blend of traditions, customs, and architecture. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church in Istanbul and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate are prominent religious sites that showcase the cultural diversity and historical significance of the region.

Geography and Landmarks

Rumeli’s geography is diverse and captivating, offering a range of natural wonders and architectural marvels for visitors to explore.

Geographical Features

The European side of Turkey boasts a stunning coastline along the Aegean and Marmara Seas, with sandy beaches that attract beach enthusiasts from around the world. Inland, the region is characterized by rolling hills, fertile plains, and charming villages. The Bosphorus Strait, a narrow waterway separating Europe and Asia, is an iconic landmark in Rumeli, offering breathtaking views and the opportunity to witness large ships passing through.

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Historical Landmarks

Rumeli is home to numerous historical landmarks that tell the story of its past. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, one of the oldest and largest covered markets in the world, is a must-visit for those seeking a unique shopping experience. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, popularly known as the Blue Mosque, is an architectural gem with its cascading domes and delicate blue tiles. Another notable landmark is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, designed by the renowned Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.

Natural Attractions

Nature lovers will find plenty to explore in Rumeli. The Belgrade Forest, located on the outskirts of Istanbul, offers a tranquil escape from the bustling city life. The picturesque Tekirdağ wine region, known for its vineyards and wineries, is a popular destination for wine enthusiasts. The stunning Islands of Princes, located in the Sea of Marmara, provide a peaceful retreat with their beautiful beaches and historic mansions.

Cultural Diversity

Rumeli is a melting pot of different cultures and ethnicities, creating a vibrant and diverse community.

Ethnic Groups

The region is home to various ethnic groups, including Turks, Greeks, Bulgarians, and Armenians. Each group has contributed to the cultural tapestry of the region, enriching it with their traditions, customs, and cuisines.

Languages Spoken

The primary language spoken in Rumeli is Turkish. However, due to its multicultural heritage, you will also hear a blend of Greek, Bulgarian, and Armenian languages in certain areas. English is widely spoken in tourist areas, making communication easier for international visitors.

Religious Sites

Rumeli is a place of religious significance for various faiths. Alongside the historic mosques and churches, you can also find synagogues, reflecting the Jewish heritage in the region. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, located in Istanbul, holds great importance for the Orthodox Christian community and serves as the spiritual center for the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Cuisine and Local Delicacies

The culinary scene in Rumeli is a delightful fusion of Turkish, Greek, and Bulgarian flavors, offering a wide range of gastronomic experiences.

Traditional Turkish Dishes

You can’t visit Rumeli without trying some traditional Turkish dishes. From succulent kebabs and flavorful mezes to mouthwatering baklava and Turkish tea, the region offers a diverse array of culinary delights. Don’t miss out on the opportunity to savor the famous Turkish breakfast, featuring an assortment of cheeses, olives, fresh bread, and jams.

Greek and Bulgarian Influences

The Greek and Bulgarian influences in Rumeli are evident in its cuisine. You can indulge in dishes like moussaka, pastitsio, and souvlaki, which showcase the Greek influence. Bulgarian delicacies such as banitsa and kebapi can also be found in certain areas, adding an extra layer of culinary diversity to the region.

Notable Restaurants

Rumeli is home to numerous restaurants that cater to all tastes and budgets. Whether you’re looking for a traditional Turkish kebab house, a waterfront seafood restaurant, or a fine dining experience with panoramic views, you’ll find a wide range of options to satisfy your cravings. Some notable restaurants in the region include Balıkçı Sabahattin in Istanbul, famous for its fresh seafood, and Ergene Restaurant in Edirne, known for its delicious Bulgarian-inspired cuisine.

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Major Cities in Rumeli

Rumeli is home to several major cities, each with its own unique charm and attractions.


Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, is undoubtedly the crown jewel of Rumeli. With its stunning architecture, bustling markets, and vibrant nightlife, the city offers an unforgettable experience for visitors. Istanbul is also a cultural hub, with numerous museums and art galleries showcasing the region’s rich history and artistic heritage.


Known as the “City of Palaces”, Edirne is a treasure trove of Ottoman architecture and historical landmarks. The Selimiye Mosque, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a must-visit attraction, renowned for its grandeur and architectural beauty. Edirne is also known for its annual oil wrestling festival, Kırkpınar, which attracts competitors from all over the world.


Located on the coast of the Sea of Marmara, Tekirdağ is a charming city known for its wine production and picturesque landscapes. Visitors can explore its historic city center, visit the Rakı Museum to learn about the national drink of Turkey, and enjoy a leisurely stroll along the waterfront promenade.

Transportation and Accessibility

Rumeli is well-connected and easily accessible, offering a range of transportation options for travelers.


Istanbul is served by two international airports: Istanbul Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, providing convenient access for international and domestic flights. Edirne and Tekirdağ also have regional airports, ensuring easy travel within the region.

Road Network

Rumeli has a well-developed road network, making it accessible by car or bus. The E80 highway connects Istanbul with Edirne, while the E5 highway provides easy access to Tekirdağ. The region is also well-connected by intercity bus services, offering a comfortable and affordable way to travel between cities.

Public Transportation

Once in Rumeli, public transportation options, such as buses, trams, and ferries, are available to navigate within the cities. Istanbul, in particular, has an extensive public transportation network, including the metro, tram, and ferry systems, making it easy to explore the city and its surrounding areas.

Shopping and Souvenirs

Rumeli offers a wide range of shopping experiences, from traditional crafts to bustling markets.

Traditional Crafts

If you’re looking for unique souvenirs, explore the traditional craft shops in Rumeli. From intricately crafted ceramics and textiles to handmade jewelry and traditional musical instruments, you’ll find a wealth of treasures to take home as mementos of your visit.

Local Markets

Visiting local markets is a fantastic way to immerse yourself in the vibrant atmosphere of Rumeli. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, with its labyrinthine streets and countless stalls, is a shopper’s paradise, offering everything from handcrafted items to spices and textiles. The Edirne Covered Bazaar is another bustling market where you can browse through an array of local goods, including traditional Turkish carpets and colorful lanterns.

Popular Souvenirs

For a taste of Rumeli, bring back some local specialties as souvenirs. Turkish delight, spices, and traditional tea sets make popular choices. Carpets and kilims, renowned for their quality and intricate designs, are also sought-after souvenirs that reflect the region’s rich textile heritage.

Festivals and Events

Rumeli hosts a variety of festivals and events throughout the year, showcasing its cultural diversity and traditions.

International Istanbul Film Festival

Film enthusiasts flock to Istanbul to attend the International Istanbul Film Festival, a prestigious event that showcases a diverse selection of films from around the world. The festival offers screenings, workshops, and panel discussions, providing a platform for emerging talent and promoting cultural exchange through cinema.

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Edirne Kırkpınar Oil Wrestling Festival

The Edirne Kırkpınar Oil Wrestling Festival is an ancient tradition and one of the oldest wrestling festivals in the world. Wrestlers gather in Edirne to compete in this unique event, where they cover themselves in oil and demonstrate their strength and skills. The festival attracts spectators from far and wide, eager to witness this impressive display of athleticism and tradition.

Tekirdağ Rakı Festival

For those who appreciate a good drink, the Tekirdağ Rakı Festival is a must-visit event. Rakı, an anise-flavored alcoholic beverage, is an integral part of Turkish culture. The festival celebrates this traditional drink, offering tastings, music performances, and culinary experiences centered around rakı and its accompanying mezes.

Outdoor Activities

Rumeli’s natural beauty provides ample opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts to partake in various activities.

Hiking and Trekking

The diverse landscapes of Rumeli are a hiker’s paradise, offering trails for all levels of fitness and skill. Whether it’s exploring the picturesque forests and hills surrounding Istanbul or venturing into the rugged mountain ranges near Edirne, you’ll find plenty of opportunities to immerse yourself in nature and enjoy breathtaking views along the way.

Bosphorus Boat Tours

A boat tour along the Bosphorus Strait is a must-do activity when visiting Rumeli. It allows you to admire the stunning skyline of Istanbul, pass by iconic landmarks, and witness the unique blend of European and Asian cultures that define the city. Whether you choose a leisurely cruise or a thrilling speedboat ride, exploring the Bosphorus offers a unique perspective of Rumeli.

Bird Watching

Rumeli is a haven for bird watchers, thanks to its diverse ecosystems and strategic location along migration routes. The wetlands around Tekirdağ, such as the Büyük Mandıra Bird Sanctuary, attract a wide variety of bird species throughout the year. Experienced guides can accompany you on bird-watching tours, providing fascinating insights into the region’s avian population.

Rumeli’s Beaches and Coastline

Rumeli’s coastline is a true paradise for beach lovers, offering a range of sandy shores and crystal-clear waters.

Popular Beaches

The European side of Turkey is blessed with stunning beaches. Some of the popular ones include Kilyos Beach in Istanbul, famous for its lively atmosphere and water sports activities, and Saros Bay Beach in Edirne, known for its golden sand and tranquil surroundings. Tekirdağ also offers beautiful beaches, such as Şarköy Beach, where you can relax and soak up the sun.

Beach Activities

Rumeli’s beaches cater to various interests and preferences. Adventurous souls can try their hand at water sports like windsurfing and kitesurfing, while those seeking relaxation can simply stretch out on the sand and enjoy the gentle sea breeze. Beach volleyball, snorkeling, and boat trips are also popular activities that guarantee a day filled with fun and excitement.

Day Trips to Islands

Rumeli’s coast is dotted with idyllic islands that are perfect for day trips. Büyükada, the largest of the Princes’ Islands, offers a peaceful retreat with its historic mansions, charming streets, and horse-drawn carriages. Burgazada and Heybeliada are also worth visiting, with their picturesque landscapes and serene atmosphere, creating an ideal escape from the bustling city life.

In conclusion, Rumeli, the European side of Turkey, is a captivating destination that offers a blend of history, natural beauty, and cultural diversity. From the ancient Byzantine and Ottoman heritage to the vibrant culinary scene and outdoor activities, there is something for everyone to explore and enjoy. So pack your bags, embrace the friendly spirit of Rumeli, and embark on a memorable journey through this enchanting region.